SPAFA Journal <p>The SPAFA Journal is the annual publication of the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) Regional Centre for Archaeology and Fine Arts (SPAFA) in Bangkok, Thailand. It carries original research papers and multimedia articles on the archaeology, visual arts, performing arts, traditional arts, heritage conservation and cultural heritage of Southeast Asia. Submissions are accepted all-year round.</p> en-US (Noel Hidalgo Tan) (Ratchaporn Tesjeeb) Tue, 19 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0700 OJS 60 ACTAN SYMBOLS IN INDONESIA'S DIGITAL FICTION <pre style="text-align: justify; background: #F8F9FA;"><span class="y2iqfc"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">The purpose of this research is to find, to describe the actual symbols that exist in Indonesian digital fiction, and as a requirement in completing doctoral studies. This research method uses qualitative methods with phenomenological and narrative approaches. The data sources are ten applications containing digital short stories and ten applications containing digital novels. All applications are taken from the onlineplaystore store. Selection of data sources based on certain criteria, namely: rating 3+ to 18+, most downloads, and 4.0-50 reviews. While the research data are words, phrases, clauses, sentences, and paragraphs that contain actual symbols. The data analysis technique used descriptive and hermenutic techniques. The technique of testing the validity of the data used triangulation, peerdebriefing, guided discussion, and external auditors. The result of the research on the narrative symbolization of the characterization of Indonesian digital fiction is that Indonesian digital fiction is rich with actual symbols.</span></span> <span class="y2iqfc"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: #202124;">Actual symbols include: subject, object sender, opponent, helper and receiver. The functional symbol consists of six aspects, namely: the initial situation, the transformation (the proficiency test stage, the main test stage, and the brilliance test stage) and the final situation. The actual symbol represents the values ​​that apply in Indonesian society, the character of modern Indonesian society, the shift in traditional values ​​to modern values, the existence of strong and close kinship ties, the existence of a feminist movement, there are two values ​​adhered to by modern Indonesian society, and the involvement of readers or netizens. in the works.</span></span> <span class="y2iqfc"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">Through this research, it is hoped that researchers can create a combination of theories for digital fiction and digital fiction that can develop into literary works that are rich in values ​​and culture. The combination of good quality work, technology, virtual space, media, and virtuous netizens will make Indonesian digital fiction develop in a better and higher quality direction. With the increase in quality, the next stage of digital fiction can be used as an asset for the Indonesian nation in the category of Indonesian literature cases.</span></span></pre> <pre style="text-align: justify; background: #F8F9FA;"><span class="y2iqfc"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">&nbsp;</span></span></pre> <pre style="text-align: justify; background: #F8F9FA;"><span class="y2iqfc"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">Keywords: active symbols, actants, and digital semiotic stylistics.</span></span></pre> Nancy Simanjuntak Copyright (c) - Paul Gauguin and the quest for world spirituality <p>Abstract</p> <p>Paul Gauguin was born in Paris, France on June 7, 1848. The dynamics of his life journey greatly motivated his search for something deeper and more meaningful in his life and work. Gauguin's disillusionment with the bourgeois society in his environment and his desire to create his art works encouraged his decision to devote himself totally as an artist, especially outside his environment. He traveled from one region to another outside Europe. This experience will influence his development as a painter. The trips that Gauguin often undertook were influenced by his work as well as seeking broader and deeper experiences. As a European he sought a "primitive" lifestyle that was neither tangible nor considered "exotic". He is looking for geographic answers to his professional and personal searches while living in Tahiti. By examining his personal life, it is known that Gauguin's wandering led him to a deeper spiritual life, which is reflected in his works and writings. In order to understand the expression of spirituality in his work, we will examine several major works by Gauguin that clearly depict images of Buddhism and other Eastern religions.</p> <p>Keywords: Paul Gauguin, post impressionist, spirituality, Tahiti, Eastern religion</p> Iswahyudi - Copyright (c) Banjuran, Gamelan for Ancient Balinese Procession <div><span lang="EN-GB">This article is part of research entitled "The Evolution of the Balinese Gamelan", which is accompanied by an overview of the changes that occurred after the Gelgel era. This article aims to provide an overview of the Banjuran gamelan form as written in several ancient Balinese inscriptions. Balinese Karawitan experts often associate it with the Balaganjur gamelan, which is now developing in Bali. In order to obtain a comprehensive explanation, this article was compiled employing the historical method. The historiography stage in this study was conveyed through the delivery of critical-descriptive analysis. Although the Sukawana A I inscription actually states that Bali's historical era started from 804 AD, the close relationship between Bali and Central Java actually existed around the 7th century, which is proven through various archaeological findings. It certainly opens the suspicion that the Banjuran gamelan image is engraved in the Borobudur Temple’s reliefs. Many asymmetrical shapes of Balinese drums (<em>kendang</em>) are engraved in the reliefs. Furthermore, Balinese drums' shape is also engraved in the Tegawangi Temple’s reliefs in East Java. This form of the Banjuran gamelan is also strengthened by information and data from the Kakawin Nagarakretagama. Gamelan Banjuran is thought to be the forerunner of the development of the Balaganjur gamelan that is currently developing.</span></div> Hendra Santosa, Dyah Kustyanti, Ida Ayu Wayan Satyani Copyright (c) A methodological examination of multidisciplinary research of Mak Yong theatre as text, heritage, and performance | Pengujian metodologis atas penelitian multidisiplin tentang Teater Mak Yong sebagai teks, warisan budaya, dan pertunjukan <p>Most studies of Mak Yong theatre focus on structure and elements that constitute it. Even though the previous studies provide insights about Mak Yong tradition, their approach face a challenge in a more complex situation recently. The current context in Indonesia witnesses Mak Yong as a revived tradition, reinvented heritage, and commodified Malay identity marker. The theatre form has been constantly (re)shaped by the state institutions, local communities, and other agents. Heritage formation, politics of identity, and tourist festivals emphasize certain dimensions of the revived tradition as text, heritage, and performance. In this context, how to approach the three dimensions and disentangle the social processes that shape them? This article examines the relevance of multidisciplinary approaches and how they work in the study of Mak Yong theatre and its current production in the Riau Islands from the perspectives of anthropology, heritage studies, and philology.</p> <p>Kajian tentang Mak Yong umumnya berpusat pada struktur dan unsur pembentuknya. Kajian terhahulu memang memberikan pemahaman tentang teater tradisional ini, namun pendekatannya menghadapi tantangan dalam situasi kompleks hari ini. Konteks terkini di Indonesia menunjukkan Mak Yong sebagai tradisi yang dibangkitkan kembali, warisan budaya yang direka ulang, dan penanda identitas Melayu yang dikomodifikasi. Teater ini senantiasa dibentuk ulang oleh lembaga-lembaga negara, komunitas lokal, dan pelaku-pelaku lainnya. Pelembagaan warisan budaya, politik identitas, dan pariwisata budaya menekankan beberapa dimensi dari Mak Yong: sebagai tradisi yang dihidupkan kembali, warisan budaya, dan pertunjukan. Dalam konteks ini, bagaimana mendekati tiga dimensi tersebut dan mengurai proses sosial yang membentuknya? Artikel ini menguji relevansi pendekatan multidisiplin dan cara bekerjanya dalam mengkaji teater Mak Yong dan produksinya saat ini di Kepulauan Riau dari perspektif antropologi, studi warisan budaya, dan filologi.</p> Alan Darmawan Copyright (c) HERITAGE CONSTRUCTION IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN VIETNAM: A LITERATURE REVIEW | KIẾN TẠO DI SẢN TRONG PHÁT TRIỂN DU LỊCH Ở VIỆT NAM: TỔNG QUAN TÌNH HÌNH NGHIÊN CỨU <p>Heritage is a resource in tourism development, especially in developing countries, including Vietnam. However, putting the heritage into exploitation for tourism development to not go against the perspective of heritage conservation, always towards sustainable development, is a complex issue and not easy to solve in each country. To consider that practical problem, it is first necessary to understand how the heritage is operated in tourism development. Some heritage researchers have introduced the concept of "heritage construction" to explain the natural movement of the heritage according to the flow of contemporary context. This concept is suitable to demonstrate the Vietnamese context when the state orients tourism as a critical economic sector. However, before having a profound understanding of the practical context in Vietnam, it is essential to review the research literature in general and in Vietnam to find the research gaps and fill up with new research problems.</p> <p>Di sản là nguồn lực trong phát triển du lịch, nhất là ở các quốc gia đang phát triển, trong đó có Việt Nam. Tuy nhiên, việc đưa di sản vào khai thác phục vụ phát triển du lịch như thế nào để không đi ngược lại quan điểm bảo tồn di sản, luôn hướng tới sự phát triển bền vững là vấn đề phức tạp và không dễ dàng được giải quyết ở tùy từng quốc gia. Để xem xét vấn đề thực tiễn đó, trước tiên cần hiểu rõ việc di sản được vận hành trong phát triển du lịch như thế nào. Một số nhà di sản học trên thế giới đã đưa ra khái niệm “kiến tạo di sản” để lý giải sự vận động tự nhiên của di sản theo dòng chảy của thời cuộc. Khái niệm này phù hợp để kiến giải cho bối cảnh Việt Nam khi du lịch được nhà nước định hướng như một ngành kinh tế mũi nhọn. Tuy nhiên, trước khi có một kiến giải sâu sắc cho bối cảnh thực tiễn ở Việt Nam, rất cần sự tổng quan tình hình nghiên cứu trên thế giới nói chung và ở Việt Nam nói riêng, để tìm ra những khoảng trống nghiên cứu trước khi có thể san đầy nó bằng những vấn đề nghiên cứu mới.</p> Thi Phuong Anh Dang Copyright (c) A Tribute to the Remaining Makyong Performers of Yala, South Thailand | Sanjungan Untuk Para Penggiat Makyong di Yala, Selatan Thailand <p>Makyong is a form of Malay dance-theatre that combines dance, music, drama and comedy. It is said to have originated in the kingdom of Patani and later spread to Kelantan, Perlis, northern Sumatra and the Riau Islands. In the past, Makyong was performed to give thanks for a good harvest and for ritual healing. While there were more than ten active groups in the twentieth century, there is no permanent group left in South Thailand today. This essay honours the remaining performers who still come together to perform Makyong when there is an invitation. Based on oral interviews, we document the lives of the veteran performers, particularly the female actresses who played the leading roles. Through observations of their performances, we show how the Makyong performers in south Thailand have adapted some elements of Thai theatre.</p> <p>Makyong merupakan sebuah bentuk teater tradisional Melayu yang menggabungkan tarian, muzik, drama dan komedi. Persembahan ini dipercayai berasal dari kesultanan Patani dan kemudian berkembang ke negeri Kelantan, Perlis, Sumatera Utara dan kepulauan Riau. Pada masa dahulu, Makyong dipersembahkan sebagai tanda kesyukuran di atas penuaian padi yang baik serta untuk ritual perubatan. Terdapat lebih dari sepuluh kumpulan Makyong yang aktif pada abad kedua puluh, namun kini tiada lagi kumpulan tetap Makyong yang bergiat di selatan Thailand. Esei ini merupakan satu tanda sanjungan kepada para penggiat Makyong yang masih lagi tegar dan bersemangat untuk berkumpul dalam melestarikan Makyong apabila dijemput untuk menjayakan persembahan ini. Berlandaskan beberapa temubual lisan, kami mendokumentasikan kehidupan penggiat veteran Makyong, terutamanya pemain wanita yang memegang watak utama. Melalui pemerhatian terhadap beberapa persembahan tersebut, kami menceritakan bagaimana penggiat Makyong di selatan Thailand memancarkan beberapa pengaruh Thai ke dalam persembahan ini.</p> Sooi Beng Tan, Shafii Copyright (c) 2021 SEAMEO SPAFA and Author Wed, 17 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0700