The Artistry and Creative Process in the Making of Malang Masks in East Java | Kesenian dan Proses Kreatif dalam Penciptaan Topeng Malang di Jawa Timur

Authors

  • Guntur [n/a] Institut Seni Indonesia Surakarta

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26721/spafajournal.2021.v5.636

Keywords:

mask, Malang, style, art creation, kidung, traditional, Panji, Topeng, gaya, penciptaan seni, tradisional

Abstract

The creative process in Malang mask making has a strong tradition of creation which has produced a unique form. The Malang mask art has been popularized based on the Panji story. Despite being properties of an art performance, the masks are works of art. The visual characteristics of the faces and their carved ornaments are the main elements that determine the typology of the mask’s facial appearance. The characteristics of form, color, expression, and function create a unique style or identity of the group of traditional mask artists in Malang. Masks can be classified according to four general types of character: the figure of Panji, antagonistic characters, servants, and animals. In terms of the traditionality of creation, including aspects of material, technique, and function in the community of craftsmen, the style of the masks refers to previously existing forms. This essay is a qualitative description of the artistry of Malang masks, through the formation of the Panji story – based on kidung as indigenous stories in the practice of adaptive Hinduism – and leaning on a dichotomy with the Kakawin form. Malang masks are used by the wayang topeng community in art performances to present the narration of the Panji story – against the spiritual cultural background of the common people.

Process kreatif dalam pembuatan topeng Malang memiliki tradisi penciptaan yang kuat, dan telah menghasilkan bentuk yang khas. Topeng Malang dipopulerkan berdasarkan kisah Panji. Meskipun menjadi properti seni pertunjukan, topeng adalah karya seni. Karakteristik visual wajah dan ornamen ukir merupakan elemen utama yang membentuk tipologi perwajahan topeng. Karakteristik pada bentuk, warna, ekspresi, serta fungsi, menghasilkan gaya atau identitas unik dari kelompok seniman topeng tradisional di Malang. Klasifikasi topeng ada pada empat tipologi umum karakter tokoh: sosok Panji, tokoh antagonis, tokoh abdi, dan tokoh binatang. Dari sisi tradisionalitas penciptaan, yaitu aspek materialitas, teknik, dan fungsinya di komunitas perajin, gaya topeng mengacu kepada bentuk topeng yang ada sebelumnya. Esai ini mendeskripsikan secara kualitatif perwujudan artistik topeng Malang, melalui formasi kisah Panji - berdasarkan kidung sebagai cerita asli dalam praktek Hinduisme adaptif - dan bersandar pada dikotomi dengan bentuk Kakawin. Topeng Malang digunakan oleh masyarakat topeng wayang dalam pertunjukan seni untuk menampilkan narasi kisah Panji - dengan latar belakang kultural spiritual orang biasa.

Typology of masculine characters in the Malang mask style, from left to right: Kollo Marko Mamang, an arrogant, evil character; Gunung Sari, a refined, noble character; Tokoh Panji Lembu Amijaya, a wise, discerning character. Source: Photo by Guntur and Nurohim.

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Published

2021-03-03

Issue

Section

Research Articles