An Examination of Experiences in Archaeology of Females and LGBTQIAs in the Philippines | Isang pag-aaral sa mga karanasan ng mga kababaihan at mga LGBTQIAs sa arkiyolohiya sa Pilipinas


  • Marie Louise Antoinette Sioco Tuklas Pilipinas
  • Kathleen Dela Cuesta Tantuico
  • Grace Barretto-Tesoro University of the Philippines



archaeology, philippines, LGBTQIA, women in archaeology


More women and members of the LGBTQIA+ community are noticeably enrolling in and graduating from the University of the Philippines School of Archaeology (formerly Archaeological Studies Program) since it was established in the mid-1990s. This paper presents the challenges women and LGBTQIA+ individuals face in this traditionally male-dominated field. We examine unknowingly discriminatory practices, attitudes toward women and LGBTQIA+ individuals, rights and responsibilities in the field and laboratory, research opportunities, intellectual property rights, a safe working environment, and other issues that came out during interviews. More importantly, it focuses on the victories of women and LGBTQIA+ archaeologists working in the Philippines.

We end by recommending how we can improve the practice of archaeology for all individuals.


Patuloy ang pagdami ng mga mag-aaral sa arkiyolohiya sa Pilipinas mula nang itinatag ang University of the Philippines School of Archaeology noong 1995. Bunsod nito, pinag-aralan ng mga may-akda ang mga hamon na kinakaharap ng mga kababaihan at LGBTQIA+ na indibidwal na nagsasagawa ng arkiyolohiya sa Pilipinas sapagkat ito ay isang disiplina kung saan mas nangingibabaw ang kalalakihan. Sinuri ng mga may-akda ang mga hindi sinasadyang pag-uugali, pakikitungo, at diskriminasyon sa mga kababaihan at LGBTQIA+ na mga indibidwal; kanilang mga karapatan at responsibilidad sa fieldwork at sa laboratoryo; mga oportunidad sa pananaliksik; mga karapatan sa intelektwal na pag-aari, ligtas na kapaligiran sa pagtatrabaho, at ibang mga isyu na nabanggit sa mga panayam. Layunin rin ng pag-aaral na ito na kilalanin ang mga tagumpay ng mga kababaihan at LGBTQIA+ na indibidwal na arkiyolojists na nagtatrabaho sa Pilipinas. Sa pagtatapos, nagrekomenda ang mga may-akda kung paano mas mapapabuti para sa lahat ang pag-aaral ng arkiyolohiya sa Pilipinas.


Asian Development Bank (2013) Gender equality in the labour market in the Philippines. Pasig: Asian Development Bank Institute.

Bardolph, D. N. (2014) A critical evaluation of recent gendered publishing trends in American archaeology. American Antiquity 79(3): 522-540.

Bardolph, D. N. (2018) Controlling the narrative: A comparative examination of gendered publishing trends in the SCA and beyond. California Archaeology 10(2): 159-186.

Blackmore, C., Drane, L., Baldwin, R., and Ellis, D. (2016) Queering fieldwork: Difference and identity in archaeological practice. The SAA Archaeological Record 16(1): 18-23.

Bradley, C. and Dahl, U. (1994) Productivity and advancement of women archaeologists. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 5(1): 189-194.

Bruno, M. C., Couture, N. C. and Blom, D. B. (2012) Proyecto Qochamama?: Experiences, perceptions, and representations of three female co-directors at Tiwanaku, Bolivia. The SAA Archaeological Record 12(2): 18-21.

Claassen, C. (2000) Homophobia and women archaeologists. World Archaeology 32(2): 173-179.

Claassen, C., O’Neal, M., Wilson, T., Arnold, E., and Lansdell, B. (1999) Hearing and reading southeastern archaeology: A review of the annual meetings of SEAC from 1983 through 1995 and the journal Southeastern Archaeology. Southeastern Archaeology 18(2): 85-97.

Colaninno, C. E., Lambert, S. P., Beahm, E. L. and Drexler, C. G. (2020) Creating and supporting a harassment- and assault-free field school. Advances in Archaeological Practice 8(2): 111-122.

Commission on Higher Education (2017, Nov. 27-29). Conference on Gender Mainstreaming in Higher Education in ASEAN. Sofitel Philippine Plaza Manila, CCP Complex, Pasay City.

Dapiton, E. P., Quiambao, D. T. and Canlas, R. B. (2020) Parenting as a moderating factor for research productivity and work-life balance: Evidence from Philippine women academics. European Journal of Educational Research 9(4): 1425-1434.

David, C. C., Albert, J. R. and Vizmanos, J. F. (2017) Filipino women in leadership: Government and industry. Available at: [accessed 03 January 2024].

Gero, J. M. (1985) Socio-politics and the Woman-at-Home ideology. American Antiquity 50: 342–50.

Gero, J. M. (1991) Genderlithics. In: J. M. Gero and M. W. Conkey (eds,) Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory, 163–93. Oxford: Blackwell.

Gilchrist, R. (1999) Gender and Archaeology: Contesting the Past. London: Routledge.

Gilchrist, R. (2009) The archaeology of sex and gender. In: B. Cunliffe, C. Gosden and R. Joyce (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Archaeology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1029-1047.

Hamilton, S. (2014) Under-representation in contemporary archaeology. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 24(1): 1-9.

Heath-Stouth, L. E. (2019) Diversity, identity, and oppression in the production of archaeological knowledge. PhD dissertation, Boston University, Boston.

Heath-Stouth, L. E. (2020) Who writes about archaeology? An intersectional study of authorship in archaeological journals. American Antiquity 85(3): 407-426.j

Human Rights Campaign (n.d.) Glossary of Terms. Available at: [accessed 15 April 2019].

Lazar, I., Kompare, T., van Londen, H. and Schenk, T. (2014) The archaeologist of the future is likely to be a woman: Age and gender patterns in European archaeology. Archaeologies: Journal of the World Archaeological Congress 10(3): 257-280.

Leighton, M. (2020) Myths of meritocracy, friendship, and fun work: Class and gender in North American academic communities. American Anthropologist 122(3): 444-458.

Lundgren, S. S. and Petrosiute, V. (2017) Women’s political representation in the Philippines: A study about gender equality in the government in the Philippines. Master’s thesis, University of Borås, DiVa.

Manalo, A. S. D. (2018) Gender Representation and Stereotypes in the K-12 English Learner’s Materials. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 6(08): EL-2018.

Meyers, M. S., Horton, E. T., Boudreaux, E. A., Carmody, S. B., Wright, A. B. and Dekle, V. G. (2018) The context and consequences of sexual harassment in southeastern archaeology. Advances in Archaeological Practice 6(4): 275-287.

Miller, A. (2018) In some disciplines, heavy drinking is part of the culture that can be a problem. Available at: [accessed 6 December 2018].

Moser, S. (2007) On disciplinary culture: Archaeology as fieldwork and its gendered associations. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 14(3): 235-263.

Nelson, R. G., Rutherford, J. N., Hinde, K. and Clancy, K. B. (2017) Signaling safety: Characterizing fieldwork experiences and their implications for career trajectories. American Anthropologist, 119(4): 710-722.

Overholtzer, L. and Jalbert, C. L. (2021) A “Leaky” Pipeline and Chilly Climate in Archaeology in Canada. American Antiquity 86(2): 261-282.

Paqueo, V. B. and Orbeta, A. C. (2019) Gender Equity in Education: Helping the Boys Catch Up. Quezon City: Philippine Institute for Development Studies.

Paragas, F. D., David, C. C., Faith, C., Hoggang, G., Mangalus, M. S., Esrah, C. and Rapanot, A. (2020) Gender Representation in Philippine Advertising. Quezon City: Investing in Women, UP Gender Office.

Radde, H. D. (2018) Sexual harassment among California archaeologists: Results of the gender equity and sexual harassment survey. California Archaeology 10(2): 231-255.

Root, M. C. (2004) Introduction. Women of the Field, Defining the Gendered Experience. In: G. M. Cohen and M. S. Joukowsky (eds.) Breaking Ground: Pioneering Women Archaeologists. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1-33.

Strasser, S. and Kronsteiner, R. (1993) Women in the field: reflections on a never ending journey. In: T. del Valle (ed.) Gendered Anthropology. London: Routledge, 162-176.

VanDerwarker, A. M., Brown, K. M., Gonzales, T. and Radde, H. (2018) The UCSB Gender Equity Project: Taking stock in mentorship, equity, and harassment in California Archaeology through qualitative survey data. California Archaeology 10(2): 131-158.

Vitug, M. D. (1994, March 11). Fighting the patriarchy in growing numbers. Science, 263, 1491-1492.

Voss, B. (2021a) Documenting cultures of harassment in archaeology: A review and analysis of quantitative and qualitative research studies. American Antiquity 86(2): 244-260.

Voss, B. (2021b) Disrupting cultures of harassment in archaeology: Social-environmental and trauma-informed approaches to disciplinary transformation. American Antiquity 86(3), 447-464.

Wade, L. (2019) #MeToo controversy erupts at archaeology meeting. Available at: [accessed 15 April 2019]. Wasson, C., Brondo, K., LeMaster, B., Turner, T., Cudhea, M., Moran, K., Adams, I., McCoy, A., Ko, M., Matsumoto, T. and Raviele, M. (2008) We’ve come a long way, maybe: Academic Climate Report of the Committee on the Status of Women in Anthropology, paper presented for the American Anthropological Association.




How to Cite

Sioco, M. L. A., Tantuico, K. and Barretto-Tesoro, G. . (2024) “ An Examination of Experiences in Archaeology of Females and LGBTQIAs in the Philippines | Isang pag-aaral sa mga karanasan ng mga kababaihan at mga LGBTQIAs sa arkiyolohiya sa Pilipinas”, SPAFA Journal, 8, pp. 1–21. doi: 10.26721/spafajournal.h1twlhv8j0.



Research Articles