Over-research and ethics dumping in international archaeology | Nghiên cứu mang tính lối mòn và sự tha hóa về mặt đạo đức trong khảo cổ học quốc tế | ိုင်ငံတကာေရှးေဟာင်းသုေတသနပညာရပ်မှ မဆီေလျာ်ေသာ သုေတသနများှင့် မသင့်ေလျာ်ေသာ ကျင့်ဝတ်များ

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26721/spafajournal.v4i0.625

Keywords:

Archaeology, Southeast Asia, Ethics, Over-research, Ethics dumping, Khảo cổ học, Đông Nam Á, Đạo đức, Nghiên cứu qua loa, ေသာ့ချက်စကားလံုးများ - ေရှးေဟာင်းသုေတသန၊ အေရှေတာင်အာရှ၊ မဆီေလျာ်ေသာ သုေတသန၊ မသင့်ေလျာ်ေသာ ကျင့်ဝတ်

Abstract

Among public health researchers two ethical concerns have recently stimulated discussion: “overresearch” and “ethics dumping”. Over-research refers to a situation where the host community are not benefiting from research activity conducted by outsiders. Ethics dumping refers to doing research deemed unethical in a researcher’s home country in a foreign setting with laxer ethical rules. We briefly review the origins of these terms and explore their relevance for archaeology, with special consideration of Southeast Asia. To minimize over-research and ethics dumping in archaeology we propose some modest, specific activities that should be possible for all archaeologists to do to increase the benefit of their research to local communities, and to ensure their work is consistent with international ethical standards.


Tóm tắt: “Trong những điểm chung về tính lành mạnh của các nhà nghiên cứu, hai mối quan tâm về mặt đạo đức gần đây đã thúc đẩy thảo luận về: “nghiên cứu mang tính lối mòn và sự tha hóa về mặt đạo đức”. Nghiên cứu mang tính lối mòn ám chỉ tới một trạng thái mà cộng đồng sở tại không được hưởng lợi từ các hoạt động nghiên cứu đã tiến hành bởi người ngoài. Sự tha hóa về đạo đức ám chỉ tới việc thực hiện nghiên cứu phi đạo đức không theo một số quy tắc đạo đức ở chính quê hương của mỗi nhà nghiên cứu khi thực hiện nghiên cứu ở bên ngoài quốc gia của họ vì các quy tắc lỏng lẻo về mặt đạo đức. Chúng tôi sẽ xem xét ngắn gọn một số căn nguyên của các thuật ngữ này và tìm hiểu sự liên quan của chúng đối với khảo cổ học, bằng cách xem xét cụ thể ở Đông Nam Á. Để có thể giảm thiểu việc nghiên cứu mang tính lối mòn và sự tha hóa về mặt đạo đức, chúng tôi đề xuất những hành động cụ thể và trong chừng mực mà các nhà khảo cổ học có thể thực hiện nhằm gia tăng lợi ích nghiên cứu của họ đối với các cộng đồng sở tại, và cũng là để củng cố việc làm của họ sao cho phù hợp với các tiêu chuẩn đạo đức quốc tế.


မဆီေလျာ်ေသာ သုေတတန (over research) ဟုဆိုလိုရာတွင် သုေတသနြပလုပ်ေသာ ိုင်ငံ (သို) ေနရာသည် ၎င်းသုေတသန၏ အကျိးေကျးဇူးအား ခံစားခွင့်မရှိဘဲ သုေတသနလာေရာက်ြပလုပ် ေသာ အဖွဲအစည်းမှ အကျိးအြမတ်အားလံုးကို ရရှိခံစားြခင်းကို ဆိုလိုပါသည်။ မသင့်ေလျာ်ေသာ ကျင့်ဝတ်များ (ethics dumping) ဆိုသည်မှာ ိုင်ငံတကာကျင့်ဝတ်များကို ေကျာေထာက်ေနာက်ခံထား၍ သုေတသနြပလုပ်ရာတွင် ၎င်းတိုထက် ေလျာ့နည်းေသာ ကျင့်ဝတ်များှင့် သုေတသန လက်ခံလုပ် ေဆာင်ေသာိုင်ငံတွင် ကျင့်သံုးြခင်းဟု မှတ်ယူိုင်ပါသည်။ အေရှေတာင်အာရှိုင်ငံများကို အထူးထည့် သွင်းစ်းစားြခင်းအားြဖင့် က်ုပ်တိုသည် အထက်ေဖာ်ြပခဲ့ေသာ အေကာင်းအရာများ၏ မူလရင်းြမစ်ှင့် ၎င်းတိုှင့် ဆက်စပ်ေနေသာ ေရှးေဟာင်းသုေတသနလုပ်ငန်းရပ်များကို အကျ်းချံးြပန်လည် သံုးသပ် ထားပါသည်။ ေရှးေဟာင်းသုေတသနတွင် မဆီေလျာ်ေသာ သုေတသန ှင့် မသင့်ေလျာ်ေသာ ကျင့်ဝတ် များအတွက် ေခတ်မီ၍ တိကျေသာ လုပ်ေဆာင်ချက်များကို အကျ်းချပ်၍ တင်ြပလိုက်ပါသည်။ ေခတ်မီ၍ တိကျေသာ လုပ်ေဆာင်ချက်များကို ဆိုလိုရာတွင် ေရှးေဟာင်းသုေတသနပညာရှင်အားလံုးတို သည် သုေတသနြပလုပ်ေသာေဒသအတွင်း အကျိးစီးပွါးတိုးတက်မကို အမှန်တကယ် အေထာက်အကူ ြဖစ်ေစရန် ှင့် ၎င်းတို၏ သုေတသနလုပ်ငန်းများသည် ိုင်ငံတကာ ကျင့်ဝတ်များှင့်အညီ တသတ်မတ် တည်း လုပ်ေဆာင်ရန် ရည်ရွယ်ပါသည်။

Published

2020-12-15

Issue

Section

Integrating Local Perspectives into Southeast Asian Archaeology